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Creating and Running a C# Program

Learning Objectives

  • The student will be able to create a new C# project and run the code.
  • The student will understand the dotnet new command.

Before we can start writing code in C# we must have a directory and a project to contain our code. This project will tell our computer how to organize our code, how to make the code ready to run (known as compiling) and finally how to run our code.

Before getting started

Ensure you have setup your environment including the steps on selecting and creating a location to keep your projects.

The dotnet command

We will be using the dotnet command frequently. This command has many ways to use it and we'll discover those in various other lessons. To get started with a C# project we'll use the dotnet command to make a new project. The simplest program we can write will interact with the user by what we call the console. On Mac OS or Linux the console will be our terminal/shell and on Windows this will be our Powershell window.

Starting in the right place

Before we can create a new project we must first change the working directory of our shell into the directory where we'll keep our code. We suggest you use a folder named sdg or code or something else that will remind you this is where your projects are. You'll also want to keep this directory either in your home folder, on your Desktop, or in your Documents folder. You will find instructions in the setup lesson on how to create these.

Running dotnet new sdg-console to make a new console application

Now that we have created a directory to contain our application we can use the dotnet app to create the project:

  • If your folder is named sdg and you keep it in your home directory folder.
cd ~/sdg
  • OR if your folder is named sdg and you keep it in your Documents folder.
cd ~/Documents/sdg
  • OR if your folder is named sdg and you keep it on your Desktop.
cd ~/Desktop/sdg

Now that we are in the correct location we can run this command to generate our first new project.

dotnet new sdg-console -o OurDotnetApp

dotnet new may prompt you during setup

When you run this command you will be prompted with a question:

Processing post-creation actions...
Template is configured to run the following action:
Description: Creates a github repository for you
Manual instructions:
Actual command: bash -c "git init; hub create; git add .; git commit -m 'Initial Commit'; git push -u origin master"
Do you want to run this action (Y|N)?

This question is asking if you want to create a Github code repository for this application. If you are creating a project for an assignment or you wish to keep a record of this code, answer with a Y and you will see:

Running command 'bash -c "git init; hub create; git add .; git commit -m 'Initial Commit'; git push -u origin master"'...
Command succeeded.

This command has a few parts. The following is an example breakdown of the command.

# dotnet command
# |
# |
# | Option to say we are making a new project.
# | |
# | |
# | | Name of the template to use for this project.
# | | We will be using several different templates along the way.
# | | |
# | | | Option to tell dotnet what directory to create to store our project.
# | | | |
# | | | |
# | | | | Name of our project
# | | | | |
# | | | | |
# v v v v v
dotnet new sdg-console -o OurDotnetApp

Our project is created along with a Github repository if we wish.

The project is in a directory with the same name we provided after the -o in our original command. Now we will make that directory our current directory by using the cd command:

cd OurDotnetApp

What files make up our project?

The dotnet new sdg-console command generates a new project for us from a template. In this case we are using the console template. Each template we use with the dotnet new command will generate a different set of startup files for us. These files give us a place to start as well as configure our tools so we can get started writing code.

Let's see what startup files appear in our folder:

NOTE: You can do this one of two ways. 1: You can start your editor with: code . 2: You can use the command line tool ls to list the contents of the folder.

.
├── Program.cs
└── OurDotnetApp.csproj

We may also see an obj folder but we will ignore that for a moment.

Project File (.csproj)

There are two files in our folder. The first, OurDotnetApp.csproj is a file that dotnet wrote for us. It contains details about the project itself such as which version of dotnet our program needs. For the most part, we are not going to modify this file

Code (Program.cs)

The second file, Program.cs is where we will start writing our C# code. The .cs file extension indicates to our code editor as well as the dotnet tool that this code is written in the c-sharp (or cs) language.

Let's run our code!

The template Program.cs simply prints out the phrase Welcome to C#.

To get dotnet to run our program and see if the phrase appears on our screen we will use the dotnet run command.

dotnet run

We should see the following output on the screen if our program ran correctly:

Welcome to C#

Now as we change our code and add more functionality we can return to our terminal/Powershell and run dotnet run again to see our new code in action.

Watch our code and automatically run it.

If you find yourself in a cycle of:

  • Change code
  • Run dotnet run
  • See output
  • Repeat

you can use an alternative to dotnet run named dotnet watch run. By using this version of the command we are telling dotnet to watch our code for any changes and to re-run our code as soon as it sees any.

With this option our terminal/Powershell will look like:

$ dotnet watch run
watch : Started
Welcome to C#!
watch : Exited
watch : Waiting for a file to change before restarting dotnet...

Now our working cycle can be:

  • Change code
  • See output
  • Repeat

This leaves us in our code editor more often and allows us to focus.

Congratulations

We are all setup to begin writing programs in C# and .NET!

Demonstration

How To Animation

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