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C# Numbers

Integers

var score = 42;
int score = 42;

Floats

var total = 10f;
float total = 10;
var price = 10.0f;
float price = 10.0;
var pi = 3.14159265f;
float pi = 3.14159265;

Decimal

var total = 10m;
decimal total = 10m;
var price = 10.0m;
decimal price = 10.0m;
var pi = 3.14159265m;
decimal pi = 3.14159265m;

Double

var total = 10d;
double total = 10;
var price = 10.0;
double price = 10.0;
var pi = 3.14159265;
double pi = 3.14159265;

Basic Math

+, -, *, /

+ and - represent addition and subtraction.

* and / represent multiplication and division.

The result of adding, subtracting, or dividing two int is always an int. If you divide two integers such that there would be a decimal part, the decimal part is dropped.

Example:

int firstNumber = 42;
int secondNumber = 4;
var result = firstNumber / secondNumber;

In this case result is 10.

The result of adding, subtracting, or dividing where at least one of the values is not an integer, but an double or float will result in a double or float.

Thus if we wanted the above to include a decimal part we could make one of the two numbers a non-int

double firstNumber = 42;
int secondNumber = 4;
var result = firstNumber / secondNumber;

In this case result is 10.5.

%

This is known as the modulo operator. The result of firstNumber % secondNumber is equal to whatever the remainder would be if we divided secondNumber into firstNumber.

Taking our above example:

int firstNumber = 42;
int secondNumber = 4;
var result = firstNumber / secondNumber;
var remainder = firstNumber % secondNumber;

In this case result is 10 and remainder is 2. The remainder is 2 because as we divide 4 into 42 we can only do so 10 times, leaving 2 over.

Modulo is useful for things like determining if a number is even or odd.

var isThreeEven = (3 % 2) == 0; // False
var isEightEven = (8 % 2) == 0; // True

It is also good for ensuring that a value is bounded by some value, causing it to wrap around.

// We don't want index to be 5 or more (stops at 4), and if it does it should wrap around to 0
var index = 0;
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 0 + 1 is 1 -- 1 % 5 = 1
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 1 + 1 is 2 -- 1 % 5 = 2
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 2 + 1 is 3 -- 1 % 5 = 3
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 3 + 1 is 4 -- 1 % 5 = 4
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
// Here is where the % comes into play, adding one to 4 give 5, but we want this to "wrap around" back to 0.
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 4 + 1 is 5 -- 5 % 5 = 0
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 0 + 1 is 1 -- 1 % 5 = 1
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");
index = (index + 1) % 5; // 1 + 1 is 2 -- 2 % 5 = 2
Console.WriteLine($"index is {index}");

Let's see this in a loop:

for(var index = 0; index < 20; index++)
{
var wrappedValue = index % 5;
Console.WriteLine($"Wrapped value is {wrappedValue} since index is {index}");
}
Wrapped value is 0 since index is 0
Wrapped value is 1 since index is 1
Wrapped value is 2 since index is 2
Wrapped value is 3 since index is 3
Wrapped value is 4 since index is 4
Wrapped value is 0 since index is 5
Wrapped value is 1 since index is 6
Wrapped value is 2 since index is 7
Wrapped value is 3 since index is 8
Wrapped value is 4 since index is 9
Wrapped value is 0 since index is 10
Wrapped value is 1 since index is 11
Wrapped value is 2 since index is 12
Wrapped value is 3 since index is 13
Wrapped value is 4 since index is 14
Wrapped value is 0 since index is 15
Wrapped value is 1 since index is 16
Wrapped value is 2 since index is 17
Wrapped value is 3 since index is 18
Wrapped value is 4 since index is 19

Conversions

Converting strings to integers with int.Parse("42")

Attempts to convert the given string into an int value. The method also takes additional arguments that allow for different formats of the string, e.g. allowing it to parse numbers with currency symbols like "\$42".

If the string cannot be parsed into an integer then an exception is thrown, FormatException.

Example:

int parsedNumber = int.Parse(someStringVariable);

MSDN Documentation

COnverting strings to integers with success/failure

bool success = int.TryParse("42", out result)

Much like the int.Parse method except this will return a boolean (true/false) if the number is parsable. If the number is parsable, and the method returns true, then the variable in the second argument, and after the keyword out will be updated with the new value.

Example:

int parsedNumber;
bool wasThisParsable = int.TryParse("42", out parsedNumber);
if (wasThisParsable)
{
Console.WriteLine("Yes, it was parsable and the integer is {parsedNumber}");
}
else
{
Console.WriteLine("Sorry, not parsable");
}

MSDN Documentation

Converting strings to doubles -

double.Parse and double.TryParse

These work exactly like their int counterparts yet they work with doubles.

Example:

var answer = double.Parse("42.34");

MSDN Documentation


Convert

The Convert class can convert to and from many formats, depending on which method you call.

Example:

using System;
double doubleNumber = 23.15;
// Returns 23
int integerNumber = Convert.ToInt32(doubleNumber);
// Returns True
bool booleanNumber = Convert.ToBoolean(doubleNumber);
// Returns "23.15"
string numberAsString = System.Convert.ToString(doubleNumber);
// Returns '2'
char digitAsCharacter = System.Convert.ToChar(stringNumber[0]);

The Convert class has many variations and can convert between many types. To see other examples, check the MSDN Documentation

Casting

Much like the Convert we can use the idea of casting to attempt a conversion of one data type to another.

To use casting you place the name of the type you are converting to in parentheis and place this before the variable you are casting.

For instance:

double doubleNumber = 23.15;
// Returns 23
int integerNumber = (int)doubleNumber;

ToString

For both int and double types we can convert to a string as follows:

Example

int value = -16325;
string valueAsString = value.ToString();

Rounding

C# offers a number of ways to round numbers. The primary rounding methods are Round, Ceiling, and Floor.

Floor

The Floor method, Math.Floor, accepts a double and returns the number without any of the digits after the decimal part. The technical description is Returns the largest integral value less than or equal to the specified number.

double price = 12.34;
double priceFloored = Math.Floor(price);
// priceFloored will be 12

Ceiling

The Ceiling method, Math.Ceiling, accepts a double and returns the smallest whole number that is greater than or equal to the number. For instance if we asked for the Ceiling of 42 we would get 42 back since it 42 a whole number that is equal to the number we gave it. However, if we supplied 42.01, the next smallest whole number would be 43.

NOTE: The resulting type is still double -- if you want an integer, you'll need to Convert or cast the value to an integer.

double wholePrice = 42;
double wholePriceCeiling = Math.Ceiling(wholePrice);
// wholePriceCeiling will be 42
double priceWithMore = 42.01;
double priceWithMoreCeiling = Math.Ceiling(priceWithMore);
// priceWithMoreCeiling will be 43

Round

Rounds a value to the nearest whole number. Optionally we can specify the number of fractional digits.

double pi = 3.14159265;
double roundedPi = Math.Round(pi);
// roundedPi will be 3 since we are rounding down
double roundedPiWithThreeDigits = Math.Round(pi,3);
// roundedPiWithThreeDigits will be 3.142 since we are rounding UP because the *fourth* digit is a 5

NOTE: there are also different ways to round numbers. If interested, check the C# documentation on rounding

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