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SQL Joins

Knowing how to join tables together and use where clauses is an essential aspect to learning to effectively use SQL.

Let's build up some guides to the process using an example.

Starting with an example

Let's say you have the following task:

Find all the quantities on order number `X529` for the `Flowbee` product.

Our ERD

We'll start with this ERD

sql join erd

Gather up all the tools (tables) we need

The first thing we need to do is gather up the tables that will be involved in this task. This is similar to gathering all the tools we need for a home improvement project, the hammer, the screwdriver, the tape measure, etc. Or gathering up all the kitchen utensils we need for making a recipie, the blender, the pots and pans, the baking sheet, etc.

Here we know we have an order number, and we see the OrderNumber column on Orders so likely that table will be involved.

We see the name of a product so the Name field on Products indicates that the Products table will be involved.

We also see that order quantities are on the ProductOrders table so we'll see that table will be involved.

Join those tables together

Now we need to JOIN all those tables together!

Every join of multiple tables always STARTS with a table we wil make our FROM table. Since OrderQuantity is the value we want, it makes sense to start with that table.

SELECT "ProductOrders"."OrderQuantity"
FROM "ProductOrders";

Next up we see we join over to the Orders and to the Products. It doesn't matter here much which order we do this in, so let's join over to the Orders table next. When we do this we need to identify the column on each side that we'll want to make equal. We'll compare the OrderId from the ProductOrders table and the Id column from Orders since they are the columns that make the relationship work.

SELECT "ProductOrders"."OrderQuantity"
FROM "ProductOrders"
JOIN "Orders" ON "ProductOrders"."OrderId" = "Orders"."Id";

Great! Now let's also JOIN over to the Products so that table is in the game!

SELECT "ProductOrders"."OrderQuantity"
FROM "ProductOrders"
JOIN "Orders" ON "ProductOrders"."OrderId" = "Orders"."Id"
JOIN "Products" ON "ProductOrders"."ProductId" = "Products"."Id";

Perfect! All of the tables are in the mixture.

Limit (WHERE) the rows that will be considered when joining/selecting

Next up we should look to limit the data based on the details of the problem we are trying to solve. We noted that the Product Name needs to be limited to those for a Flowbee so lets use that detail.

In order to limit the results we add a WHERE clause and specify the table/column to use and the value to compare to.

SELECT "ProductOrders"."OrderQuantity"
FROM "ProductOrders"
JOIN "Orders" ON "ProductOrders"."OrderId" = "Orders"."Id"
JOIN "Products" ON "ProductOrders"."ProductId" = "Products"."Id"
WHERE "Products"."Name" = 'Flowbee';

Now we will only see ProductOrders that are for a Flowbee. However, we also only care about a specific order, the one with a OrderNumber of X529. We can add another condition by adding an AND clause to the WHERE.

SELECT "ProductOrders"."OrderQuantity"
FROM "ProductOrders"
JOIN "Orders" ON "ProductOrders"."OrderId" = "Orders"."Id"
JOIN "Products" ON "ProductOrders"."ProductId" = "Products"."Id"
WHERE "Products"."Name" = 'Flowbee'
AND "Orders"."OrderNumber" = `X529`;

With this we have linked together all three tables via JOIN statements. Further we have limited which Orders and which Products are involved in the joined data. We will only see the OrderQuantity from ProductOrders for order X529 and only for products that are a Flowbee

General process

  1. Identify all the columns that you need in the RESULTS
  2. Identify all the columns that you need to FILTER BY
  3. Use those to identify all the tables that will be involved in the query
  4. Choose one table to start with, this decision will vary depending on what you are selecting from. Realistically you can start with any table, but one that is more "in the middle" of the ERD diagram will be better.
  5. JOIN each of the other tables together based on how their relationships are established.
  6. Add WHERE clauses such that you filter the data based on the conditions the problem presents.
  7. Add fields to your SELECT based on the data you need, use table names and column names from the tables you have joined together.
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